We aren’t that far apart. I don’t primarily favor government subsidies either. Instead of a guaranteed income I think we need guaranteed living-wage jobs. If every adult who is physically capable of working were guaranteed a living wage job (which would include medical insurance) most of the need for food stamps, subsidized medical care and housing etc. would disappear. Just giving people money is, I think, generally a bad idea.
Giving them the opportunity to earn enough money to support themselves strengthens the entire society. But those jobs will need to be subsidized with tax money.
For more details on how this might be done, see my post A Guaranteed Minimum Income Is The Wrong Answer To The Right Question